Friday, June 1, 2012

Errorless Learning versus the use of No Reward Markers


Errorless Learning versus the use of No Reward Markers

Errorless learning is a type of training that sets humans or animals up with the goal of a 100% success rate while learning.  Today, not only zoos, marine parks, and dog trainers use errorless learning, but also teachers of children and people with learning disabilities use it with their pupils instead of trial and error learning.   
This type of training was first introduced by Herbert Terrace in 1963 in a discrimination experiment with pigeons. Terrace was trying to find a way to reduce the emotional behavior that interferes with operant behavior when an animal makes an error in discrimination training.  He trained pigeons to discriminate between two squares of color.  With one group he used errorless learning by creatively setting the pigeons up to succeed in offering the correct behavior right from the start, while with the other group he used trial and error learning.  The group of pigeons set up for errorless learning offered an average of 25 incorrect behaviors during the testing period, while the pigeons trained by trial and error offered the incorrect behavior between 2,000 and 5,000 times.  His astounding results have paved the way to more precise learning procedures with less unwanted side effects, benefiting a wide variety of learners, from people suffering from Amnesia, bomb sniffing dogs, to performing killer whales. 

Errorless learning as opposed to trial and error learning has been scientifically proven with animals and humans to:

*Minimize the number of errors in the training session
*Decrease time spent learning a skill
*Reduce future errors, as they have never been practiced
*Create less frustration, stress, and aggression
*Not inhibit behavior
*Not create a conditioned emotional response associated with punishment to any part of the behavior or task
*Not create a conditioned emotional response associated with punishment to the trainer or the training environment

An example of errorless learning:

Perhaps you have taught your dog to touch a target with his nose, and also step on a target with his paw.  After repeating the cue of touching the target with his nose with the target 1 foot from the ground, you then put the target on the ground.  Most dogs will be highly likely offer foot targeting as well as nose targeting because of the situational cue of the target being on the ground, unless they have worked on stimulus control for both behaviors.  Instead of using a no reward marker or another type of punishment for an incorrect behavior, you can simply set the dog up for success from the start.  You could do this by lowering the target gradually, shaping approximations of the final behavior so that nose targeting continues successfully until the object is on the ground, or you could prevent errors by having the dog stand on a stool with his paws to keep them in place when you put the nose target on the floor.  Plan and think creatively to create precise, reliable, and highly reinforced behaviors using errorless learning!

Why do dog make errors in training?

Behaviors can deteriorate because of incorrect criteria, timing, and/or reinforcement.  Animals naturally vary behavior and so it is impossible to achieve no errors.  Regression is also a natural part of learning in all creatures.  A context shift can also affect behavior, as dogs do not generalize well.  For example, if your dog “knows” sit in the kitchen, your dog might not “know” sit in the yard on the grass, sit while another dog is playing Frisbee next to you, or sit in the dog park.  So if the trainer wants stimulus control over the behavior (a reliable behavior in all the situations the trainer asks for it), the behavior must be proofed and reinforced to the degree the trainer wishes in all the scenarios he wishes.

Other reasons that errors may occur are if your animal is over aroused, sick, tired, full, injured, overweight, out of shape, fearful, nervous or stressed.  The environment and distractions could also be disrupting your training session.  Your reinforcement could be to blame by not being of a high enough value, or too predictable.  Reinforcement in scientific terms, increases behavior. So if the behavior is not increasing- it’s not being reinforced.   

What do you do when errors start popping up? 

When training using errorless learning, a warning sign that your plan needs to be modified is when your animal starts offering too many incorrect behaviors.  Instead of punishing the dog by using a no reward marker to give the dog information that he was wrong, modify your training plan to set your dog up for continued success.  You can use shaping to reinforce approximations of the desired behavior.  

When proofing and adding new criteria, you must lower the level of existing criteria.  You can use the environment, props, cues, previous training, as well as reinforcement placement to set your dog up for faster success.  If your training plan is not yielding results, stop doing it and think creatively!

If your dog is failing in the middle of a behavior chain, go back and reinforce the behaviors that are faltering to create a stronger chain.  All behaviors in behavior chains need to be equally reinforced or the chain could fall apart at its weakest link.  The area of a chain that falls apart the fastest, tells you which area is the weakest and needs to be reinforced the most.

For using errorless learning in not just training sessions but also everyday life, you can use these guidelines:

Reinforce- the behaviors your dog is already doing that you find desirable and they will increase.
Train- new behaviors as alternate behaviors to replace the ones you don’t like.
Interrupt- behaviors you find undesirable so they don’t attain a reinforcement history.  You can do this by using a previously trained with positive reinforcement recall, attention noise, leave it cue, or asking for a different behavior from your dog to interrupt the undesirable behavior from continuing.
Prevent- your dog from practicing unwanted behaviors by using management.

For information on solving behavioral problems and interrupting undesirable behavior inside and outside of training sessions without using physical or psychological intimidation, read the Progressive Reinforcement Training Manifesto here:

What is a No Reward Marker?

A No Reward Marker is a trained Secondary Punisher, or in other words a Conditioned Punisher that predicts no reinforcement is to follow.  With enough conditioning of a word or sound to be the predictor of no reinforcement, the word itself will create a conditioned emotional response in the animal similar to the disappointment of not being given the reinforcement he was expecting.  After conditioning, when this word is used during training, it will cause the animal to be less likely to repeat the behavior he was doing in the future (if conditioned correctly and if the behavior isn’t self reinforcing).  Trainers use NRMs to punish, or in other words suppress behavior with the hopes that they will cause the behaviors to be less likely to be repeated in the future.  Examples of NRM’s are “no”, “eh-eh”, “oops!”, “wrong”, “sorry” and “try again”.

The problems with using No Reward Markers:

* NRMs can cause frustration, stress and even aggression.
*They can inhibit behaviors you dislike, but also inhibit behaviors you had wanted to keep.
*They can create a conditioned emotional response associated with punishment to a cue or a behavior (known as a poisoned cue) if used often.
*They can create a conditioned emotional response associated with punishment to the trainer and/or the training environment if used often.
*They can give the trainer the idea the dog is to blame rather than a faulty training plan.
*If your dog is over-aroused, stressed, confused, fearful or sick your dog might perform a behavior incorrectly, and punishment will only mask the underlying problem.
*Using NRM’s are positively reinforcing for the trainer- meaning that a trainer might unconsciously start using them more often in training sessions as they give a feeling of instant gratification.  Making a trainer less likely to modify the training plan and more likely to punish the dog instead.

Look at the dog in the picture.  Imagine the trainer had said “Oops!” the moment the dog sat down in front of her, because the dog sat too slowly.

The next time the trainer asks for the cue the dog could offer an even slower sit, or perhaps offers another learned behavior like a down, or an alternate dog behavior like jumping up, whining, barking or growling. There is the possibility that the dog could offer a faster sit, but what if the dog doesn’t?

Perhaps the dog understands the concept of a NRM but superstitiously responds by acting as if it was the eye contact that was incorrect, perhaps the dog associates the punishment with being too close to the fence, or perhaps that he should not be in front of the trainer. Perhaps it was a combination? Perhaps the trainer does not want the dog to sit ever again, as when the dog had jumped on the trainer the NRM meant to never do that behavior ever again. 

Instead of using a NRM, the trainer could reinforce the dog’s fastest sits to build the muscle memory and a reinforcement history of the desired speed of sitting.  Instead of having the dog guessing about what he shouldn’t be doing, the trainer could reinforce him for doing what she wants him to be doing, and building a stimulus response association of only the correct behavior.  The trainer could set the dog up for success by making him more likely to sit fast by playing tug and getting the dog excited before asking for the cue, not asking for the behavior when the dog has just woken up from a nap and luring the dog into a fast sit with a treat until the dog is sitting at an appropriate speed prior to asking the cue.  

Classical Conditioning occurs in your training whether you like it or not.

If you say “down” and your dog sits, and then you say “wrong”, a secondary punisher follows the behavior of a sit.  This not only punishes a sit offered in response to the cue “down” but it also causes the behavior of siting to be conditioned with the secondary punisher.  This means that the next time you say “sit” your dogs brain might activate the memory of the NRM associated with the behavior in the past, and it could lead to confusion down the line as well as illicit a conditioned emotional response associated with punishment if NRM’s are often used in training.

In the video below Tedd Judd, PHD, Board Certified in Clinical Neuropsychology by the American Board of Professional Psychology, shares a great example of how using trial and error learning as opposed to errorless learning with an Amnesia patient caused the incorrect behavior to be more likely to occur in the future, rather than the desired one:






In the video Tedd Judd gives the example of a patient with Amnesia, in the hospital. The Doctor asks the patient, “Do you remember my name?” The patient says “No” and the doctors replies “Well, take a guess”, and the patient answers “Dr. Smith?”.  The doctor then answers, “No, It’s Dr. Judd”.  The next morning the Doctor asks the same question. “Do you remember my name?” and the patient replies “No”, and the doctor says “Can you take a guess?”, then the patient replies “Was it Dr. Smith?” Then the doctor replies, “No, it’s Doctor Judd”.  Then the next time the doctor goes past the patient the patient says “Oh, hi Dr. Smith!!!”  This happened because the patient was remembering their mistake, instead of the appropriate response. 

This same scenario can happen with dogs, a dog can remember and build muscle memory for the incorrect response even if a NRM was given.  With errorless learning where your goal is to shape successful approximations of the final behavior, the dog will not have the opportunity to think of, learn or practice incorrect responses.

An example of this is using trial and error training with No Reward Markers while teaching a dog to weave through agility poles.  During trial and error training the dog could zoom through the poles incorrectly, and you could say “Whoops!”, try again, and then the dog gets it right.  Perhaps you do 10 repetitions and the first time the dog was incorrect, then correct, then had 3 more errors, but then was successful the last 5 times.  It could seem that your dog has learned from his errors, however there is a higher possibility that the dog will repeat the mistakes he just repeated 4 times in the trial of 10 and than if you did 10 trials using errorless learning where the dog only make a mistake 1 out of 10 times.  This is because the dog has practiced doing the error more times.

Using a NRM in the middle of a behavior chain can not only punish the behavior in the chain, but can also punish the behaviors previously done in the chain, and can cause the cue to become poisoned (create a conditioned emotional response associated with punishment to the cue or the behavior). 

If you used a NRM for the dog exiting the weave poles in the middle of the poles, instead of completing the weaves correctly, and for some reason you had to use the NRM multiple times in this exact area of the weaves, your dog could start to have a conditioned emotional response associated with punishment when reaching that area of the weave poles that have been continually punished and your dogs behavior could change because of this conditioned response.

As Ted Turner, an internationally renowned Animal Behaviorist and marine mammal trainer says, regarding the use of punishment in training; when you reinforce your dog for something “you are putting money in a reinforcement account.   If you put a punishment in there, you drain your savings.  If you put too many punishments in there, there will be nothing to draw from.” 

In my opinion, it is easier to compete with the environment and distractions and be the most reinforcing option for your dog when you do not use punishers or conditioned punishers, as you have not “drawn from your reinforcement savings”.  To condition a behavior as secondary reinforcer (which means the animal will more readily do it without primary reinforcement in the future), stronger conditioning occurs if the behavior is only paired with reinforcement and never punishment, such as a NRM.  After many repetitions using errorless learning, the cues and behaviors your dog does should elicit a conditioned appetitive emotional response, in other words the dogs feels a similar feeling when he hears the cue of the behavior and completes the behavior to the feeling of being reinforced.

No one said training with errorless learning is easy.  It is much easier to watch an animal and say ‘yes’ when you like what they are doing and ‘no’ when you don’t like what the animal is doing.  It is much harder to create a training plan and adjust the plan using creative thinking when things go wrong.

In my opinion only the most talented trainers should implement such a complex method such as No Reward Markers into their training plans, and if the trainer is that talented, then they shouldn’t be making that many errors in the first place to need NRMs.

26 comments:

Ron Watson said...

Nice post, Emily.

I've got something coming up that kind of dovetails with this. We had an epiphany at camp with a drop on the run skill that many dogs have problems with.

We went from a painful shaping session with too many undesired behaviors and slippery criteria to a simple and elegant shaping session that made almost all of the attempts successful.

It's also useful in many other training situations.

Thanks for sharing.
Peace~

DebM said...

Hi Emily!

Loved this post! I'm wondering if you'd mind if I used it for my June article of the month? Of course with your identification on it, etc.

What do you think?

Pam's Dog Academy said...

HI Emily!
I recently posted a YT video on NRM. It was no where near as in depth as this post. I am so happy that you posted this! :)) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iQBDJ8B8gtI
I am off to teach a CF class! :) Miss you!!

Pam, Isabelle, Bandit and Twix

Omar Rodriguez said...

Hi Em !!!Very Interisting article!! Me gusto mucho y es muy util!!!! Gracias por compartirlo!!!
Saludos

hazylandbc said...

I love your last sentence:
"In my opinion only the most talented trainers should implement such a complex method such as No Reward Markers into their training plans, and if the trainer is that talented, then they shouldn’t be making that many errors in the first place to need NRMs"! Well said!

Dogert said...

Very interesting post. I love how thorough you are. Next you should do a tutorial or something with an example of errorless learning in action. Just a suggestion. :)

Lawrence said...

Humans are smarter than dogs. Yep… no offense to dogs, but even the dumbest blonde you know is smarter than the smartest dog you know. That’s good news, because if you want your dog to be a good student—to learn to sit, stay, heel, come, fetch; in short, to obey your every command—you have to be a good teacher. To be a good teacher, you have to understand how your student thinks. Because you’re smart, this will be a breeze. http://www.trainapuppy101.com

E said...

Hi Emily,
Errorless learning using the tightly controlled techniques Terrace promulgated is wonderful--especially if you plan to teach the animal or person only one contingency in a certain situation, ever. But as with every method, it has its limitations too. Have you read the subsequent research on errorless learning, such as Marsh and Johnson (1968) and McCoy and Pratt (1976)? The subsequent research showed that pigeons trained errorlessly to peck at a red light and ignore a green light were mostly unable later (in 5 days of training with hundreds of sessions under food deprivation) to reverse the contingency. I think this could have some really important ramifications for those of us training companion animals in a real world environment.

If we are seeking the most humane training possible and avoidance of frustration, we might want to be cautious about setting an overall goal of errorless learning, especially in discriminations. If we later needed to teach an opposite response, we would probably be inducing more frustration in the animal than we would have if we had used trial and error the first time, or at least a less stringent adherence to prevention of errors. So for example, errorless learning would probably not be a good way to teach left and right or come by and away. Perhaps even sit and down. On the other hand it would be a great way to teach a dog to respond only to one scent, as long as one was sure that the target scent would never be changed.

In this piece you generally equate errorless learning with a companion animal with setting them up for success, which is a great goal. And most people, even professional trainers, lack the technical equipment to set up a situation as subtle as Terrace's in fading in the undesired stimulus. So there probably isn't much of a danger of people getting too close to the response percentages that Terrace got. I just wanted to point out that they could come with a very high price for the animal if incompatible behaviors will ever be taught.

Thanks for all you do for humane training.

Eileen Anderson

Johnas said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
hornblower said...

I do think this approach has great merit generally speaking but I do suspect that it's also important to instill some persistence to overcoming mistakes.

One problem identified with human 'gifted' children for example is that things frequently come very easily to them in the early grades & so some do not develop the persistence to carry on when suddenly faced with a new task which is difficult. They have come to expect that things will be easy & when they're not, they conclude that they can't do it - not that they should try something different.

I think allowing a bit of gentle frustration - like we do in shaping savvy clicker dogs for instance - can help develop very essential problem solving skills.

Julie Green said...

http://51318ad-l-uggcbpvj1gdnfw1k.hop.clickbank.net/

This may work for you also!

Michelle M said...

Er, wasn't muscle memory disproven?

snickdog said...

Muscle memory is a very real, proven phenomenon. Take, for example, gymnastics - an immense ammount of muscle memory is called into play during the routines. Tag Teach is used by one of our local gyms to teach competitive gymnastics because of the power of the tag to help build muscle memory on the beam and parallel bars (and their team goes to Nationals every year, and has had members become Olympic team members). In your everyday life, there are hundreds of examples of the use of muscle memory: starting a standard-shift car on a steep hill without rolling back requires coordination of different groups of muscles until you get to the point where you don't NEED to think each little thing through.

Jenny Ruth Yasi said...

Errorless learning is good, but it's not always "versus" no reward markers. You can have errorless learning AND NRMs! In real life, animals look upstairs for something, when the thing is downstairs. Or, I trip over the dog or cue the wrong thing or change my mind. Withholding information is bad. A NRM doesn't have to be associated with punishment. It can be associated with information, and assuming information is helping the dog find reinforcement more quickly, information is very reinforcing. My hat fell overboard and it was sinking fast. I sent Tigerlily to get it and she was going around to the wrong side of the boat! Wrong way! It's not that way! (NRM)!! So she turned and "yay!" (conditioned encouragement) and she found it! When something weird happens and I slip and say "oops!" it doesn't discourage her, and she doesn't feel shamed or blamed or anything other than, "aha! something went wrong there!" If I step on her tail and say "oops" that's probably the closest I can come to an apology that she can understand! It's neutral information (that was a wrong thing that happened there), and information is good! Punishment and shame and pressure is bad, for sure! But lets not tell people that every oops they say is wrong! That's discouraging! But neutral information, even when it's telling us, "not that way, but over here!" is good!

Canine Freestyle said...

-

Emily Larlham said...

1- The pigeons were harder to "untrain" because they had a stronger stimulus response association. In the same way if you teach a dog a stimulus response association to "sit", it will be harder to undo than when you use punishment. ALSO the dog will find it more of a secondary reinforcer so more likely to repeat it without reward- because of the stimulus response association. If you wanted a dog to learn Sit means sit and then sit means down, errorless learning would not be a good idea. But I have yet to train my dog to do the opposite when I say a cue. The key is to add your CUE early so the situational cues dont become the fixed cues- for example- teaching my dog to go "under" "over" "through""on top" of a table- without adding the cues early the table will "cue " the strongest behavior. I have had great success with every dog. ALSO I dont brag- when you set yourself up to set your dog up for success- usually being a normal human- you DONT get 100% success! The dog makes incorrect responses in different training games.
2- In regards to the comment of it being good to frustrate a dog in order for the dog to "work through it" or deal with it... That is just one trainers "opinion" that is completely not based in science. It is like saying its better to let a dog work through the fear of a thunder storm, or work through reactivity... Obviously some dogs it would seem like it worked, others they would continue practicing the behavior. I LOVE how 2 out of 3 of my dogs NEVER get frustrated. Splash my border collie, NEVER gets frustrated during training... I actually don't know how to frustrate her... and as a result- I never get any of the side effects of frustration and over arousal in her behaviors. TUG my terrier on the other hand can get frustrated easily, and I would never DREAM of frustrating him on purpose. The thing about behavior is- is that if it is practiced it will be more likely to occur in the future. I myself do not see the benefit of a frustrated dog. As Kathy Sdao says "those neurons that fire together wire together" If you dont like your dog being frustrated, dont practice those linkages in the dogs brain. Instead create new behavioral paths. Tug is 3 and each year he gets less and less frustrated in training and I can get more and more complex behavior for less reinforcement because of it. In the beginning I was lazy and I let him growl during training especially during freestyle as you cant hear it during the music and it became a fixed behavior that became very hard to get rid of... by going back to the basic basic basics and starting over, I have a dream dog, but it was a year of working on CALM and making sure he never got over aroused. Now we have our whole life ahead of us! I dont regret putting in the effort to prevent him from getting frustrated...

Emily Larlham said...

Jenny- I agree with interrupting incorrect behavior, but you can do it using another cue or a 100% positively trained attention noise or recall. The term No Reward Marker means that it is a marker that the animal has been conditioned to KNOW he wont be rewarded after- that in itself is punishing. I interrupt behavior with previously trained cues that I also reinforce in other scenarios. Like the cue "free". If I say down, and the dog sits, I simply say "free" and then ask again, or make a kissy noise- both do not predict no treat is coming because I use them frequently when training other behaviors that are correct and reinforce them often. :) Absolutely no chance of behavioral fallout. I don't know why someone would take the risk and hope their dog didn't find an untrained "NRM" punishing. Also I think they give trainers the feeling like they are fixing the problem- punishing the incorrect answer , when instead they should be BUILDING the correct answer- PROOFING it successfully until it is reliable- under stimulus control and the cue creates a stimulus response association- the dog cant get it wrong even if he wanted to- he just DOES it.

Md jakaria said...

Dog Breeds
Generally there is a wide interpretation of what is called “breed”. Breeds are actually categorized by a functional type from which a breed has developed. The most of the breeds are traditional breeds with a very long history, who are registered. There are some rare breeds, who have also their own registries, but some new breeds are still under development. There are even a lot of dog breeds, who are in danger to extinct. There are a few cases, where the origin of breed overlaps the frontier of two, three or more countries. As the general rule the dog is listed in the country in that he is most commonly associated, according to the FCI (Fédération Cynologique Internationale), by the designated country of the dog. There are some dogs, who have an uncertain origin, therefore they are getting classified under several countries.

World Class K-9 said...


Training dog to secure you can be valuable but it also can cause issues if it is not done properly. The dog could end up being risky to
everyone, not just to scammers.
Personal Protection Dogs for Sale

Md. Jakaria said...

Dog Breeds
For thousands of years dogs have been bred. From time to time humans have done inbreeding even from their own ancestral lines and also by mixing them from various lines. Over the centuries the whole breeding process is continuing until the present day, resulting in a huge genetically diversity of all types of dogs, breeds and hybrids, no other mammal can present. Furthermore no speciation developed, despite the appearance of a wide variation of dogs no other animal could obtain. Just compare the extreme difference between a Chihuahua and a Great Dane.
Read More

Bubblegum Casting said...

Yes indeed very interesting post












bubblegum casting

Caitlin George said...

houlton institute will help you in training your dog perfectly. This is an online course on dog care, Developed in collaboration with experts from the ASPCA.

Irene said...

Definitely the NRM can become a crutch if you constantly try to use it with a faulty training plan. Your dog will either become desensitized to it and just ignore you, or they will become overly sensitive to it and shut down. Neither is good for learning or building a fun and trusting relationship.

If I am teaching a dog a new behaviour I wouldn't bother with a NRM, there's no point - the dog does not understand what he is supposed to do so why on earth would you punish him for getting it wrong? And with most of the tricks and obedience I do with my own dog, I don't bother with a NRM. I want to set her up for success, allow her to learn the behaviour at her own pace, and then proof and reinforce it in new locations or with different distractions. The only time that I use the NRM with my dog is if she fails to do something she responds to 90% of the time (or I lose her focus to something more reinforcing such as dogs), and only if I can redirect her to something that I can then reinforce her for. If she is failing because I've really set her up to fail and I can't possibly redirect her, that is wholly my fault and I NEED to do something differently otherwise I will end up with a negative and very undesirable response from my dog (as she gets frustrated and very quickly associates that with other dogs). I find that when I am using a NRM with my dog, she actually responds quite attentively to the "woops!", most likely as it is always followed by something she can do well and be reinforced for. If I can get her attention back and repeat the difficult aspect with a slightly easier variant, that is fine with me!

However, if I am teaching the average dog owner to teach their dog to do something such as Stay, I do use NRMs fairly early on. But we always have to be able to redirect the dog to something that is appropriate, or something that the dog is capable of so we can continue reinforcing him. If we have to use the NRM more than twice, then we need to change what we are doing because we have made it too difficult for the dog. People learn very quickly that saying "Oops!" means that we have to get the dog wanting to be focused on us, and that WE are doing something wrong that is causing the dog to fail. In other words we need to go back a step to something that is achievable for the dog before repeating the more difficult scenario. Not that saying "oops" will correct the behaviour and tell the dog he was wrong and he should do better.

Punishments are really not effective especially if you are looking for reliable, long-term behaviours. They simply do not give enough information, and break the trust your dog has with you. He has no idea what you want even when you have a clear picture in your head. As it is said, there are an infinite number of ways to do it wrong and only one way of doing it right. Why bother trying to punish out all the wrong ways, when you can reinforce the one correct way of doing it (or at least be able to tell your dog "you're getting warmer, keep trying!".

I guess I should say that I use the NRM only as an interrupter so that I can direct the dog to something he/she can be rewarded for. I do not use the NRM in order to eliminate behaviour, and I do not continue to depend on it. I guess I don't really use it as a 'true' punisher at all as I do not rely on it to decrease unwanted behaviours, only to get the dog's attention back and redirect him.

Does anybody have a specific thought on this?

Frances Potgieter said...

Very Interesting article, I agree with Jenny Ruth Yassi in a previous comment that you can use both I also prefer lure and marker training to free shaping especially for competitive sport training
http://experiencesofawannabedogtrainer.blogspot.com/

Seth Ashford said...

Great post- when I took my dog to a trainer, the trainer used the errorless approach to teaching my dog commands such as sit, down, etc. After six years, my dog still understands and follows those commands flawlessly. The errorless approach definitely works wonders for your pet- I recommend it to anyone trying to train their pet.

Seth Ashford | http://comesitstay.thedogtrainer.org/?SiteID=8611&PageID=48488

Liama Jhons said...

Training dog for a leash is one of most important stuff for pet owners which we can never forget.